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Indonesia Profile  













Indonesia is the world’s 16th largest country in terms of land area. It is the largest archipelago in the world and it consists of approximately 17,500 islands, located between Asia and Australia. There are five major islands: Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya or Papua bordering with Papua New Guinea. Two remaining groups of islands are Maluku and Nusa Tenggara, running from Sulawesi to Papua in the north and from Bali to Timor in the south. Other islands are small and mostly uninhabited. More than 80% of Indonesia’s territory is covered with water; the land area is about 1,860,360 sq.km














With a population of 237.56 million people (based on population census estimation done by National Central Bureau of Statistics-BPS, 2010), Indonesia is the world’s fourth biggest country in terms of population. Around 60 percent of the population lives on Java Island, this is only seven per cent of the country’s total area. The national average density is 109 people per sq. km but there are huge differences between the islands. While the density of Java is 951 people per sq. km, Kalimantan has only 20 people per sq. km. Approximately 118 million people (52 per cent of the population) live in urban areas. 

Indonesia Health Profile

Total Population (2010)

237.56 million

Life expectancy at birth (2005)

69.0 years

Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 live births (2007)


Under-5 Mortality rate per 1000 live births (2007)


Maternal Mortality Ratio per 100000 live births (2007)


Total Fertility Rate per woman (2007)


Health Centers (per 100000 population)


Country Cooperation Strategy

WHO Indonesia 2007 – 2011 Brief







Indonesia is administratively divided into provinces and districts. Between 2001 and 2006, the number of provinces expanded from 27 to 33.  Each province is subdivided into districts - the decentralized administrative unit, and municipalities. Altogether, in 2009, there were 465 districts and 95 municipalities in Indonesia. Additional administrative units were sub-districts and villages. In 2007, there were 6,093 sub-districts and 65,189 villages in Indonesia (31st January 2008, Ministry of Home Affairs, Indonesia).


Decentralization was implemented in 2001 had tremendous impact on the national health system. Districts were given full discretion in prioritizing sectors for development. In many districts health problems did not get sufficient attention, or funding, as reflected by the near collapse of surveillance systems, one of the backbones of disease control.


Acknowledging this situation, renewed efforts have been made by the government to address implementation issues by revising the legislation governing decentralization in 2004. It is expected that the new laws and regulations will better address the problems of implementation of decentralization.




WHO in Indonesia


The WHO Country Office for Indonesia began its operation on 23 May 1950 and has facilitated the Ministry of Health since then with support from and in collaboration with other partners, including UN agencies, donor countries and organizations, and professional organizations. WHO Indonesia support to the Ministry of Health includes technical assistance, training, guidelines and support for international standards. With staff both international and national, WHO Indonesia also gives strong support during emergency situation in the country, such as the tsunami disaster an disease outbreaks.

The overall goals of the WHO in Indonesia continues to be to improve the health of the peoples of Indonesia by supporting health development and an effective response to urgent needs, advocating health promoting policies, raising awareness of neglected public health priorities, and providing technical leadership in collaboration with the government, donor partners and other actors in health.




Strategic Agenda: principal priorities






In the light of country needs, government policies, activities of other development partners and WHO’s own objectives, the WHO Country Cooperation Strategy for Indonesia has identified six priority areas:


1.       Health policy and system development:

Support national efforts to promote policies and strengthen the health system to improve access to quality health services.

2.       Prevention and control of communicable diseases:

Provide technical and management support to help sustain and strengthen key programmes to prevent and control communicable diseases.

3.       Health of women, children and adolescents:

Promote policies and strengthen programmes to improve child, adolescent and reproductive health.

4.       Non-communicable diseases, mental health, health and environment:

Promote public health approaches to prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, mental health and environmental health.

5.       Emergency preparedness and response:

Strengthen emergency preparedness and response.

6.       Partnerships, coordination and WHO’s presence in countries:

Promote partnerships, coordination and WHO’s presence in countries.